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Author: Thomas S Kuhn
ISBN13: 978-0226458052
Title: The essential tension: Selected studies in scientific tradition and change
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Language: English
Category: History and Philosophy
Publisher: University of Chicago Press; 1st edition (February 1, 1977)
Pages: 366

The essential tension: Selected studies in scientific tradition and change by Thomas S Kuhn

Personal Name: Kuhn, Thomas S. Publication, Distribution, et. Chicago On this site it is impossible to download the book, read the book online or get the contents of a book. The administration of the site is not responsible for the content of the site. The data of catalog based on open source database. All rights are reserved by their owners. Download book The Essential tension : selected studies in scientific tradition and change, Thomas S. Kuhn.

Though I had played for some years with the idea of publishing a volume of selected papers, the project might never have become.

Second, Kuhn's theory ignores the innumerable scientific hypotheses, theories, and advances that displaced earlier explanations with very little or no resistance. Third, Kuhn misinterprets the initial resistance to Einstein's Theory of Relativity. The real problem with the acceptance of this theory is that when it made its debut (especially in the case of Einstein's General Theory), few physicists themselves could even understand the mathematics and physics involved. 2017-11-18 Ethics and the A Priori: Selected Essays on Moral Psychology and Meta-Ethics (Cambridge Studies in Philosophy). 2017-02-18 Preparation of Catalysts VI: Scientific Bases for the Preparation of Catalysts (Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis). 2009-09-14The Essential Santayana: Selected Writings (American Philosophy).

Kuhn has the unmistakable address of a man, who, so far from wanting to score points, is anxious above all else to get at the truth of matters. -Sir Peter Medawar, Nature. Categories: Education. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. 1. Sartre and the Problem of Morality (Studies in Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy).

The Essential Tension book. In 1962, Kuhn published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, which depicted the development of the basic natural sciences in an innovative way. According to Kuhn, the sciences do not uniformly progress strictly by scientific method. Rather, there are two fundamentally different phases of scientific development in the sciences. In the first phase, scientists work within a paradigm (set of accepted beliefs). When the foundation of the paradigm weakens and new theories and scientific methods begin to replace it, the next phase of scientific discovery takes place. Kuhn's theory has triggered widespread, controversial discussion across many scientific disciplines. Books by Thomas S. Kuhn

Thomas S. Kuhn (1922-1996) was professor emeritus of philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His many books include The Structure of Scientific Revolutions and Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity, 1894-1912, both published by the University of Chicago Press. Almost all of these articles consist in pretty straightforward elaboration and extrapolation of the ideas in Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions. No fundamentally new ideas are introduced (although there are some trivial adjustments in terminology, which people have made too much fuss about). The Function of Measurement in Modern Physical Science.

On Naturalizing Kuhn’s Essential Tension. Paul Hoyningen-Huene & Simon Lohse - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):215-218. The Essential Tension in Science and Democracy. David Guston - 1993 - Social Epistemology 7 (1):3 – 23. The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change. Alex C. Michalos - 1980 - Dialogue 19 (4):721-722.

The modification of scientific innovations is particularly important in light of another, closely related observation. For a novel scientific idea to be adopted, it must overcome what Kuhn (1977bKuhn ( [1959) has described as an "essential tension.

Thomas S. Bibliographic information. The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change Philosophy of science Volume 831 of Phoenix books.

"Kuhn has the unmistakable address of a man, who, so far from wanting to score points, is anxious above all else to get at the truth of matters."â?”Sir Peter Medawar, Nature
Reviews: 7

Kuhn is one of not very many Scientific Historians, who happens to additionally be a scholar. From numerous points of view, he is the father of taking a stab at the three controls in this way. There are such a variety of genuinely splendid ideas in this book, it is difficult to truly point any one range that is offered by this book.

A percentage of the subjects:

1) How is learning taught? What precisely is this realizing, especially as identifies with new revelations? What precisely is occurring to the single person as he takes in this learning.

2) Why is it that loads of development has a tendency to happen at the same time and afterward there are times of extensively less advancement?

The author moves the whole talk far from just principles based figuring out how to significantly engender more intricate thoughts of learning. For instance, such a variety of training would essentially imagine that on the off chance that you could get a youngster to parrot read, this is learning. On the other hand, Kuhn advances a superb contention for an alternate sort of learning. This plays delightfully into the current work done on versatility of the psyche.

Phenomenal! IJAZ DURRANI
If I could give this 10 stars, I would.
The revolution must not die.
Kuhn is one of very few Scientific Historians, who happens to also be a philosopher. In many ways, he is the father of coming at the three disciplines in this manner. There are so many truly brilliant concepts in this book, it is hard to really point any any one area that would sell this book.

Some of the themes:
1) How is knowledge captured? What exactly is this learning, particularly as relates to new discoveries? What exactly is happening to the individual as he takes in this knowledge.
2) Why is it that lots of innovation tends to happen all at once and then there are periods of considerably less innovation?

He moves the entire discourse away from just rules based learning to far more complex ideas of learning. For example, so many in education would simply think that if you could get a child to parrot rules, this is learning. However, Kuhn puts forth a wonderful argument for a different type of learning. This plays beautifully into the current work done on plasticity of the mind.

Particularly for the used price, this book is cheap for the breadth of knowledge it offers. Kuhns, unlike other philosophers and historians, writes in a manner that extremely digestible. Definitely get this book if you are interested in any of these topics.
Kuhn's ideas are almost always insightful, sometimes brilliant, though he can be challenging and somewhat dense to read. The last point is an observation rather than a criticism. Unlike some academic writers who use a lot of jargon and unnecessarily big words to sound authoritative, Kuhn is "scholarly" in the best sense -- meticulous about detail and extremely thoughtful in his explanations. There's a lot of great stuff here, just not light reading.

A collection of essays like this is especially nice because Kuhn's writings on a variety of topics can be sampled in manageable chunks of about 10 to 30 pages each. His consistent theme is how communities of scientists come to understand, test, and advance the state of knowledge in their fields of study. What makes the essays so fascinating for me is Kuhn's deft exploration of the social side of how science is done and how it moves forward. And though Kuhn is writing specifically about SCIENCE as a social endeavor, a number of the insights can be readily applied to other areas.

Finally, Kuhn's analyses, insights, and critiques carry added weight because he's not writing about science as an outsider. He started out as a scientist/practitioner and it shows in the crisp way he explains and weaves scientific examples into his writing. Well worth the effort to read!
Almost all of these articles consist in pretty straightforward elaboration and extrapolation of the ideas in Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions. No fundamentally new ideas are introduced (although there are some trivial adjustments in terminology, which people have made too much fuss about).

"The Function of Measurement in Modern Physical Science." It is an unfortunate textbook dogma to think that theories are confirmed by measurement, or, even worse, that scientific theories are constructed to fit given measurements, for the following reasons. (a) It is ambiguous what constitutes reasonable fit with data; one person's confirmation is another's refutation, as historical examples show (e.g., Ptolemy/Copernicus, etc., p. 185, and Galileo on falling bodies, pp. 193-194). We must conclude that the tables of data in science textbooks serve not to confirm the theories but to define the bounds of reasonable fit. (b) Most theories make very few measurable predictions. Therefore measurements may be indecisive (e.g., caloric and dynamical theories of heat, p. 200) or pertain only to relatively incidental aspects of the theory (e.g., relativity theory, p. 188). (c) To the extent that naive confirmation by measurement has been attempted, it has routinely rejected correct theories (e.g., Dalton on chemical composition, p. 195, Laplace on the speed of sound, p. 196) and it has turned out that "nature itself needs to be forced to yield the appropriate results" (p. 197). (d) "the road from scientific law to scientific measurement can rarely be traveled in the reverse direction" (p. 219). Successful measurements have almost exclusively been achieved where "the quantitative implications of a qualitative theory led the way" (p. 198, countless examples throughout). For these reasons, "only a miniscule fraction of even the best and most creative measurements ... are motivated by a desire to discover new quantitative regularities or to confirm old ones" (p. 187). Instead, the objective of measurement is "to improve the measure of 'reasonable agreement' characteristic of the theory in a given application and ... to open up new areas of application and establish new measurements of 'reasonable agreement' applicable to them. ... this can be fascinating and intensely rewarding work. And there is always the remote possibility that it will pay an additional dividend: something may go wrong." (p. 192). We all know how crucial anomalies can be, but even without them measurements would be valuable with respect to theory choice since "I know of no case in the development of science which exhibits a loss of quantitative accuracy as a consequence of the transition from an earlier to a later theory" (p. 213). By contrast, explanatory power has been abandoned repeatedly, even to the extent of rejecting earlier ideas as unscientific, e.g., Newton's gravity, or Lavoisier's theory which "deprived chemistry of one principal traditional function---the explanation of the qualitative properties of bodies in terms of the particular combination of chemical 'principles' that composed them" (p. 212).

"A Function for Thought Experiments." Since thought experiments do not introduce new empirical data one may think that the only way they can improve a theory is to isolate and resolve inconsistencies inherent in the theory. Kuhn shall argue against this view. His only substantial illustration is a thought experiment of Galileo showing an inconsistency in Aristotle's definition of speed: two things move as fast if they cover the same distance in the same time. Consider an inclined plane. One ball is sliding down the plane, another is dropped vertically from the same height. Call the vertical height H. By Aristotle's definition the dropping ball is faster: it has covered the distance H before the rolling ball has done so. But it is also slower, if H is measured from the bottom of the inclined plane instead of the top. But this does not prove that Aristotle's theory is intrinsically inconsistent, for it would be consistent if there was no accelerated motion. Thus thought experiments can improve theories not only by discovering inherent fallacies but by drawing attention to "previously unassimilated experience" (p. 261).

"Comment on the Relations of Science and Art." This is an extremely simpleminded article concerned only with reiterating foolish prejudices. Let us examine a few of these. "Unlike art, science destroys its past [and does not have museums] to inculcate craftsmanship or enlighten public taste. ... only historians read old scientific works. ... In no area is the contrast between art and science clearer. ... Picasso's success has not relegated Rembrandt's paintings to the storage vaults of art museums" (p. 345). This is ridiculous. What better description could there be of high school and undergraduate science than as a museum of past science intended "to inculcate craftsmanship or enlighten public taste"? And what works are on display in these museums if not the theories of the Rembrandts of science (i.e. Newton et al.)? Further, "Having seen Matisse's Odalisque, one may regard Ingres' with new eyes but one does not stop looking. Both can therefore be museum pieces as two solutions to a scientist's puzzle cannot." (p. 347). But they can in science too, and they are: Matisse/Ingres can be replaced by Newton/Einstein, geocentric/heliocetric, etc. Finally: "For the scientist ... the solved technical puzzle is the goal, and the aesthetic is a tool for its attainment." (p. 343). Since this is dogmatically stated without argument it is hard to argue against it on the basis of Kuhn's text, but I will try. If scientists were in their essence puzzle solvers one would expect them to be fond of chess, crossword puzzles, detective novels, etc. But instead they like music, as Kuhn points out elsewhere: "Many mathematicians and theoretical physicists have been passionately interested in and involved with music, some having had great difficulty choosing between a scientific and a musical career." (p. 64). Music is not puzzle solving but a pursuit of beauty within a structured framework.