» » Below the Convergence: Voyages Towards Antarctica, 1699-1839
Download Below the Convergence: Voyages Towards Antarctica, 1699-1839 epub book
ISBN:0393039498
Author: Alan Gurney
ISBN13: 978-0393039498
Title: Below the Convergence: Voyages Towards Antarctica, 1699-1839
Format: azw lit txt mobi
ePUB size: 1407 kb
FB2 size: 1865 kb
DJVU size: 1226 kb
Language: English
Category: Writing Research and Publishing Guides
Publisher: W W Norton & Co Inc; 1 edition (February 1, 1997)
Pages: 315

Below the Convergence: Voyages Towards Antarctica, 1699-1839 by Alan Gurney



Below the Convergence by Alan Gurney is a fascinating read. For me a real page burner. Lots of interesting material. Alan Gurney did a great job of giving a history of exploration south of the convergence zone from 1699-1839. Anyone interested in Antarctic exploration, and the different animals encountered in the deep southern Atlantic Ocean will like this book. Some great maps showing the routes the various yal Navy/, merchant marine members went as well as some interesting b/w pictures.

Start by marking Below the Convergence: Voyages Toward Antarctica, 1699-1839 as Want to Read: Want to Read savin. ant to Read. Life was harsh: crews had poor provisions and inadequate clothing, and scurvy was a constant threat.

Gurney's Below the Convergence is a very well written book that provides a wonderful historical back drop for the later feats of Scott, Shackleton, and Amundsen.

This button opens a dialog that displays additional images for this product with the option to zoom in or out. Tell us if something is incorrect. Below the Convergence : Voyages Toward Antarctica, 1699-1839. Book Format: Choose an option. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12.

Alan Gurney, Below the Convergence: Voyages Toward Antarctica, 1699-1839, Penguin Books, New York, 1998. Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources 1980, Article 1(4). This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Antarctic Convergence" (content from the Geographic Names Information System).

Personal Name: Gurney, Alan Verfasser (DE-588)115673962. Publication, Distribution, et. London. S. - 303. Chronological Term: Geschichte 1699-1839 gnd. Geographic Name: Antarctica Discovery and exploration History. Geographic Name: Antarktis gnd. Rubrics: Entdeckungsreise. Download now Below the convergence voyages toward Antarctica ; 1699 - 1839: Download PDF book format. Download DOC book format.

Life was harsh: crews had poor provisions and inadequate clothing, and scurvy was a constant threat

THE GREENPEACE BOOK OF ANTARCTICA: A NEW VIEW OF THE SEVENTH CONTINENT Greenpeace offers a beautiful volume with exquisite photography, artwork, and prose. Many short chapters provide insights into Antarctica’s geography, geology, and abundant flora and fauna. Scott’s amazingly detailed diary is a vivid, personal narrative of the team’s daily progress towards their goal, his impressions of the harsh conditions they endure, the stark beauty that surrounds them, and his own increasingly desperate ambition to beat his rivals to the Pole. The book includes contributions from 30 of the foremost living mountaineers and includes several sections on Antarctica, including early ascents of Vinson Massif, supported by ANI.

A remarkable account of the many explorations to discover the continent long suspected to exist at the South Pole. The tantalizing theory of a huge southern continent, Terra Australis Incognita, had haunted the imaginations of countless geographers throughout history. Not until the second of his great voyages in 1773 did Captain James Cook finally lay the theory to rest. This wonderfully written book tells the story of British, American, and Russian expeditions, from the astronomer Edmond Halley's voyage in the Paramore in 1699, to the sealer John Balleny's 1839 voyage in the Eliza Scott, all in search of land, fur, or elephant seals. These were voyages for science, national prestige, and profit. Life was incredibly harsh: crews had poor provisions and inadequate clothing and were constantly threatened by scurvy. Often they had to make their own charts as they sailed in the stormy waters of the Southern Ocean below the Convergence, that sea frontier marking the boundary between the freezing Antarctic waters and the warmer sub-Antarctic seas. These seamen were the first to discover and exploit a new continent, which was not the verdant southern land imagined but an inhospitable expanse of rock and ice, ringed by pack ice and icebergsAntarctica.
Reviews: 7
Sha
After reading about the Antarctic explorers Shackleton , Scott, and Amundsen (5 star books), I wanted more information about previous Antarctic and deep South Atlantic Ocean explorers.

Below the Convergence by Alan Gurney is a fascinating read. For me a real page burner. Lots of interesting material. My favorite chapter was about Captain James Cook. Here was a really great nautical man, highly intelligent and thoughtful for his men's safety. Back in the late 1700s the English Royal Navy still used some brutal methods for crew compliance. Also the dreaded "plaque of the seas" scurvy was not understood.

Even though the need for Vitamin C ( Ascorbic acid) was not known, Captain Cook realized eating fresh greens, lemon juice and certain plants and fresh meats helped keep scurvy away. Eating sour kraut and lime juice too ( not as good against scurvy as lemon juice). He was proud that none of the men on his ship Resolution developed scurvy after eating a diet rich in then unknown vitamin C. Captain Cook becomes a hero of the Royal navy with his explorations. He seems to be on the fast track to becoming an Admiral but is horribly hacked to pieces during an attack by natives on his third circumnavigation. One of the greatest explorers and British Royal Navy heroes.

We see explorers like Edmond Halley( astronomer too.. Halley's comet) and his Pink Paramore ship. Also Weddell and Brisbane and John Biscoe, Kemp, Balleny and Ross as well as a Russian explorer. Many were sealers and whalers who went deep south for the riches of seal furs, and oil. Millions of seals killed with no conservation of a limited resource. Some seals hunted almost to extinction. A fascinating account of seal, penguin and whale slaughter. The animals were needed for furs and oil but absolutely no conservation.Horrible vast indiscriminate slaughter.

There was reference to Charles Darwin and the Voyage of the Beagle. Interesting, so I bought that book on Amazon also. Reading it now.

The big hold back on accurate long distance sea navigation for centuries was getting the right longitude. Money prizes were given out for developing accurate methods. Both lunar methods and chronograph watches developed. We see the eventual improvements of being able to find different islands and better charts with improved longitude readings.

Alan Gurney did a great job of giving a history of exploration south of the convergence zone from 1699-1839. Anyone interested in Antarctic exploration, and the different animals encountered in the deep southern Atlantic Ocean will like this book. Some great maps showing the routes the various explorers/sealers/Royal Navy/ / merchant marine members went as well as some interesting b/w pictures. A great book. 5 stars
Ckelond
As a longtime fan of Polar exploration history, I eagerly bit into Alan Gurney's books, only to have a sour taste. He begins badly, by misrepresenting and misconstruing medieval history. One would have thought the explosion of the myth of the flat earth (or in this case, disk shaped) would even have reached his ears. And while he's quick to thank Islam for preserving classical knowledge, he totally dismisses the libraries and Scriptoria of the Christian west--possibly because in his ignorance he has not heard of them, but more likely because he seems to have it in for religion. His mostly secondary source bibliography lists no works in his first chapter by Christian medieval sources. He seems totally ignorant of Scholasticism or any medieval sciences, though he's quick to quote the anti-Christian Gibbon. I'm surprised he didn't totally reject Isaac Newton, as a devout Christian. And his kowtowing to Islam is a common trope these days even though the Christian west absorbed knowledge and advanced while the Islamic east remained stuck in the eighth century.

It's a common problem these days. Knowledge is broad and therefore highly specialized, and folks like Gurney and his ilk think anything outside of their field not worth studying. It's only in the first chapter, but if he can be so careless and shoddy with his reasoning and more especially his research in one section, it does not bode well for the rest of the book. (FYI my own studies are in medieval history though I have dipped extensively into the Scholastics.)

Normally, this sort of ignorance and bigotry can be excused as the rest of the book is worth reading. And certainly Gurney gives a lot of information on an important topic. But Mr. Gurney is an execrable writer. Though I am no speed reader and enjoy reading books word for word, I wound up skimming most of this one, getting the gist of his unwieldy paragraphs. His entire study of the problem of longitude should have been bypassed by saying to read Dava Sobel's book on the subject and to get on with his own.

By and large, pretty dull stuff on an exciting subject. The material covered is extremely important but this presentation of it is missable.
Vosho
THIS BOOK COVERS A PERIOD OF 140 YEARS OF VOYAGES TO THE FAR SOUTH, BETWEEN 1699 BY
THE ASTRONOMER EDMOND HALLEY IN THE PARAMOUNT AND 1839 BY JOHN BALLENY IN THE ELIZA SCOTT.
THE CONVERGENCE IS A MARITIME BORDER LOCATED BETWEEN THE PARALLELS 50 AND 60 OF SOUTH LATITUDE,
IN WHICH THE RELATIVELY TEMPERATE SUBANTARTIC WATERS GAVE WAY TO THE FROZEN ANTARTIC WATERS,
ALSO KNOWN AS THE SOUTHERN OCEAN,IN WHICH THE TEMPERATURE DROPPED SHARPLY.
THE FIRST EXPLORER TO CROSS THE ANTARTIC CIRCLE WAS THE GLORIOUS BRITISH EXPLORER JAMES COOK,
IN 1773,IN THE RESOLUTION.
Rainpick
Gave as a gift & it's a winner! The author is the designer of the original "Islander 36" sailboat from California.
Lailace
Most of all, this is a book about history and not about the men engaged in it. This book clearly covers the early history of Artic exploration, of the historic events of men and ships discovering and reaching the Artic. The detail is great and complete.
I ding this book one star because it leaves off the human element where more of the interest and drama lay. Artic exploration is full or great tales, of Scott and Shackelton and the like, the human dimension and cost of exploring the artic. This book concentrates on the historic events, not the people. Therefore, at times, the book is a bit dense and uninteresting to all but the most ardent arm-chair polar explorers. For instance, this book discussing Captain Gray's sails in the southern ocean, but didn't go into his interactions that made him the legend that he is today.
This is indeed a good book, well researched and full of detail. However, unless you're really interested, all of the detail can be a bit overwhealming and the historic accounts become dry unless you're really into the subject matter.