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ISBN:8187879734
Author: Saurobijay Sarkar,Leon Trotsky
ISBN13: 978-8187879732
Title: The Revolution Betrayed
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Language: English
Category: Politics and Government
Publisher: Aakar Books (December 1, 2006)

The Revolution Betrayed by Saurobijay Sarkar,Leon Trotsky



The Revolution Betrayed. What is the Soviet Union and Where is it Going? (1936). First published: 1937. Transcribed for the Internet: by Zodiac between August 1993 and March 1996. Kindle version of the The Revolution Betrayed. INTRODUCTION: The Purpose of the Present Work. I. – what has been achieved. II. – economic growth and the zigzags of the leadership.

The Revolution Betrayed: What Is the Soviet Union and Where Is It Going? is a book published in 1937 by the exiled Soviet Bolshevik leader Leon Trotsky. This frequently reprinted work analyzed and criticized the course of historical development in the Soviet Union following the death of Lenin in 1924 and is regarded as Trotsky's primary work dealing with the nature of Stalinism. The book was written by Trotsky during his exile in Norway and was originally translated into French by Victor Serge.

Leon Trotsky was born Lev Davidovich Bronshteyn on November 7, 1879 in Yanovka, Ukraine. As a teenager, he became involved in underground activities and was soon arrested, jailed and exiled to Siberia where he joined the Social Democratic Party  . The Revolution Betrayed ACLS Humanities E-Book. ACLS Humanities E-Book, 2009. 1597407623, 9781597407625.

It contains his analysis of Socialism, the Soviet State and Economics of Russia during the early twentieth century. This is a fascinating work and is thoroughly recommended for anyone with an interest in Russian history and the politics of Trotsky. Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the 1900s and before, are now extremely scarce.

Note: these are all the books on Goodreads for this author.

Download The Revolution Betrayed by Leon Trotsky, Saurobijay Sarkar. Cover/Number of pages: Paperback, 286 pages. Publication: Published December 1st 2006 by Aakar Books (first published 1937).

The Revolution Betrayed. What is the Soviet Union and Where is it Going? Leon Trotsky. Translated by Max Eastman. Last updated Wednesday, December 17, 2014 at 14:24. To the best of our knowledge, the text of this work is in the Public Domain in Australia. The writings of the "friends of the Soviet Union" fall into three principal categories: A dilettante journalism, reportage with a more or less "left" slant, makes up the principal mass of their articles and books. Alongside it, although more pretentious, stand the productions of a humanitarian, lyric and pacifistical "communism. 16. The revolution betrayed. dustries things are even less favorable than in the metal industry. To each worker in the quarries in the United States falls 5000 tons a year, in the Soviet Union 500 tons-that is, 1/10 as much.

These Revolutionaries had an opportunity and they took it, and this book tells the story very well of what then happened. I can gather from the whole of it that it was not quite the right place or time for it to be a good revolution.

Reviews: 7
Diredefender
No clue who actually published it or printed it, but it's not particularly well done. It's letter-sized pages (8.5x11) which makes it harder to read, the paragraphs have spaces between them. the TOC has no page numbers. Chapters start in the middle of pages, footnotes appear randomly in the middle of text rather than at the bottom of the page. Buy a different edition from a real publisher.
playboy
I decided I wanted to explore Trotsky. I began by reading Isaac Duetscher's Prophet Armed, and then this book. In my distant past I read about the Revolution mainly through the eyes Anarchists (Emma Goldman among them), Rosa Luxembourg, and at Maknho (spelling?), and have also read a little Lenin (such as State and Revolution) for a political science college course, a long time ago. My guess and my rough experience is disciplined revolutionary elites must be filled with cadres who are focused and narrow and can bring great danger because they are eager to follow and very often do not reflect. A great movement is apt to commit acts as bad as many of the ones they fight. Revolutions and wars more often than not bring terrible things to and from all sides.

I sympathize with the 1917 Russian Revolution. The orders of the day, from the Czars to the Robber Barons were unjust, not free, not equal. For the majority of people, ordidnary people who worked for a living, racial and ethnic minorities (in particular ways) throughout the world, and women have not enjoyed freedom and democracy. This is more sharpley true if we go back to 1917, and examine the world as it was then. To be sure, freedom and democracy, declared as the foundations of many countries, were never more than formal or were facades, more a decoration than a reality anywhere. So imagine having a revolution for the lower class, the proletariat, and having it be Interantionalist and universal.

That is what happened in Russia, it was the first workers republic that existed for any longer than a few weeks or months. From this book and the earlier book, things did not happen well at all. These Revolutionaries had an opportunity and they took it, and this book tells the story very well of what then happened. I can gather from the whole of it that it was not quite the right place or time for it to be a good revolution. Trotsky's belief is that Socialism requires the abundance of production of the most productive Capitalist country's, so there is enough for the abundance to go around for everyone. It was also true that ounce this abundance and socialism was achieved, 'the State would begin to wilt away'. Classes are empowered by limited resources. People want to be on top where there is great need. When Socialism is achieved, authority, the police and strong armed methods of running things would not be needed because there was no one on top who had to be protected from the people below who had much less than they needed. (Just as Trotksy was proclaiming this wonderful world of human production and abundance, I immediately reflected about the limitations nature puts on us if we are not to destroy our world, but that is not a subject very many were thinking about in 1936. Back to the book Russia was not close in anyway to where such Socialism or the Revolution could succeed, and never by itself. However, it was the right place to have something different that can survive, being so huge and having the physcical attributes that buried Napoleon's army and would bury Hitler's as well. This gets to the core of Trotsky's theory of the Permanent Revolution. If the Revolution to succeed, or one that is worthy, It requires revolutions in at least some of the highest developed abundant Capitalist countries by the working class to achieve socialism, and aid poor Russia in it's development out of the pit and toward socialism.

Getting back to the beginning of the Revolution. Trotsky, the devoted Revolutionary, at this point was willing to commit some brutal acts, but not more brutal than most other welders of power under similar circmstances all over the world. It appears later, still as one of the major leaders, he fought hard and vocally for better things until he was driven out of power and into exile, and continued until he was assasinated 11 years later. I think this was in keeping with whom Trotsky the man was. He was reflective and critical, and he was for a revolution for the sake of all humanity. He was against Totalitarianism and reducing art and literature to be an instrument of Regime. he was insightful enough to recognize how a priveleged bureaucracy where industry was state owned,(but where there was a great lack of abundanceand a great amount for the priveleged to have to protect) became a ruthless ruling class.

One thing I recognized about the Revolution Betrayed is how it can in fact be taken more than one way. I can read between the lines how conservative supporters of the Capitalist ruling class could and did use Trotksy's very perceptive ideas for their own purposes. However Trotsky was a revolutionary Communist and he wrote in defense of Communists and the Communist revolution, and he was writing in favor of Communists such as his friend Lenin. Lenin was a very interesting man, whom I cannot judge because have not read enough of or about him. I do understand, to use an metaphor of this book, that Lenin was not like Stalin, he was not the Bonapartist face of a bureaucratic class sponsored totalitarian dictactorship. Whatever hope there is the honor and future of Communism, maybe springs from this book, which is a defense of the Communist Revolution and a comdemnation of Stalinism Totalitarianism by one of the great Communists. Maybe it stands like Atlas in keeping it from being obliterated.

In closing, I cannot descibe myself as a Trotskist or any other kind of
-IST, I do appreciate the man, but I am not going to make him into an idol to be worshipped. I also realize he was a man of war, he had a tough side. This is a very educating and worthwhile book, and I look forward to reading some more of his books. One negative, I don't know if the translator is to blame, but his style of writing is sometimes a little difficult, and I found myself having to read carefully, sometimes rereading a confusing expressed phrase to understand what he was writing.
Zainn
A key work by Trotsky
Tamesya
Excellent Book!
Morlunn
This was an accurate and complete analysis of why the revolution failed under stalin's ruthless regime. I think Ttrotsky had a very fine mind.
Legend 33
Good quality used book. Paid very little for it. Trotsky's is an amazing writer and polemics. I highly recommend it.
Moralsa
Used it while teaching 1984--- this is the novel Orwell gained his ideas for Goldstein's book in 1984
Trotsky's analysis of circumstances in and around the Soviet Union during the run up to World War II is remarkably insightful and, for a committed revolutionary, profoundly pessimistic. His account of the success and subsequent pernicious and debilitating reaction to the October Revolution of 1917 offers little or no reason for optimism for readers looking to history for the means to develop a socialist alternative to capitalism. Nevertheless, Trotsky's discussion of the fundamental deficiencies in Soviet society and its government are profoundy illuminating.

As with Marx, Trotsky gave capitalism in its most highly developed forms full credit for making possible the material basis of a socialist society. Capitalism, in Trotsky's view, is an inherently conflictual and, therefore, innovative mode of social organization wherein each economic actor seeks an advantage over others. As a result, the scientific knowledge, technology, and trained manpower needed to overcome want and eliminate exaggerated levels of economic inequality are realized by capitalist development. Given a genuinely revolutionary mode of social organization, capitalist forces of producion can be adapted to provide the material foundation of a social system structured according to the tenents of socialism. In effect, the U.S. and other capitalist nations created the productive wherewithal to make socialism possible in the Soviet Union and elsewhere.

According to Trotsky, however, the Soviet Union under Stalin failed miserably in effectively borrowing technology, technique, and training from the developed capitalist world. As a result,though post-revoluionary industrialization proceeded with remarkable speed across the vastness of this predominately rural and semi-feudal area, productivity was abysmally poor. Similarly, massive changes in the organization of agriculture were adopted almost whimsically, depending on Stalin's reading of the most recent summary statistics, but agricultural production remained inadequate to feeding the people.

The cause and the result of failed economic policies were creation of a massive totalitarian bureaucracy to control the impoverished working class and peasantry, maintaining a class-based status quo in a country that was ostensibly developing in a way that would abolish all classes, something that Stalin claimed had already been accomplished. The members of the bureaucracy, depending on their position in this oppressive hierarchy, were socially and economically privileged, and had neither the incentives nor the freedom to pursue revolutionary ends.

The result was a kind of sociological staleness that bore witness to the fact that juridical changes in property relations were of little or no value in the absence of suitable levels of production of goods of all kinds. Predictably, workers and peasants were imbued with an individualistic petty bourgeoisie mentality, fraught with jealousy and competitiveness, and devoid of class consciousness, a set of circumstances that brings to mind Marx's discusssion of "crude communism" in The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. Given the blighted conditions which they were forced to endure, it would be nonsensically idealistic to imagine that things could have been otherwise.

The clarity and detail with which Trotsky presents this view is impressive, making a quasi-technical account genuinely interesting. The same holds for his argument against the "socialism in one country" posture adopted by Stalin, forestalling what Trotsky saw as necessary revolutionary activity in other countries. In truth, until I read The Revolution Betrayed, I didn't know that the original Bolsheviks were committed to immediatelly working toward revolution on an international scale. In their view, even a failed socialist society could not long survive in a world dominated by capitalist nations serving bourgeois interests and necessarily hostile to even poorly developed threats to the bourgeoisie. For better or worse, Trotsky attributed the failure of the U.S. to join the League of Nation to its desire to remain unencumbered in waging war against emerging socialist states.

There are other surprises in Trotsky's informative book. The gulags, for example, were not something first reported by Solzhenitsyn. Though not using that term, Trotsky makes frequent reference to a vast and brutal system of concentration camps for those suspected of being at odds with the Stalinist regime. Furthermore, mass murderer though he was, Stalin considered himeself an accomplished theoretician and typically took action that he thought was in the best interests of achieving a socialist state. The Red Army, so powerfully instrumental in defeating Nazi Germany, was, until the 1930's, made up largely of local and regional militias without an officer corps, a system that Trotsky thought was better suited to a socialist society. When Hitler came to power and Germany began to rapidly re-militarize, Trotsky immediately foresaw the invasion of the Soviet Union.

The kind of revolution that Trotsky believed would remake the world into a bountiful and peaceful place where human beings could develop their full potential and live truly satisfying lives was not the sort of thing that could be achieved in one lifetime, something I'm sure he understood. Whatever the merit and likelihood of his revolutionary objective, Trotsky was a remarkably well informed and insightful student of social, economic, and political life. Having read The Revolution Betrayed, I'm convinced that he understood the world as he found it as well as anyone.