Shale makes up about three-fourths of drilled formations. Even though the engineering properties of shale have been studied for several decades, shale engineering is still prone to unexpected instabilities and delays, representing a serious problem for the petroleum, mining and civil engineering industry. Distinct characteristics of shale make it exceptionally difficult to work with; three categories of potential stability problems in shale are mechanical problems, chemical reactivity and swelling, and thermal stimulation. When a number of these problems occur simultaneously, finding an optimized solution becomes even more challenging.
Shale Engineering provides an integrative engineering approach to work towards practical solutions in handling shale. Accordingly, shale is defined and described from both an engineering and geological point of view. Elasticity and poroelasticity concepts, shale’s response to temperature changes, and finally chemical properties of shale and the impact thereof on the rock’s behavior are discussed in detail.
In addressing the engineering aspects and parameters related to chemical, mechanical and thermal properties and integrating them into engineering models that can be applied in deep engineering projects, mining and other civil works, this book will serve as a reference to model designers and engineers working with shale in the petroleum industry and elsewhere. It is also suited for use in academic and professional courses in petroleum, mining, geological and civil engineering and drilling.